Chromium is a powerful web browser that Google has been working on and working on today, the Chromium Authors community, as well as companies such as Yandex, Opera Software, NVIDIA, and others. License – Apache License, BSD license, ICU License, LGPL, etc. You can now download Chromium for free for Windows 7 64-bit, Windows 8…
Browser , or web browser (from English web browser , MFA: [wɛb braʊ.zə (ɹ), -zɚ] ; outdated browser ) – application software for browsing web pages , web content -documents , computer files and their catalogs ; management of web applications ; as well as for solving other problems. In a global network, browsers use to query, manipulate, manipulate and display the content of websites. Many modern browsers can also be used to exchange files with FTP servers , as well as to directly view the contents of files of many graphic formats ( gif , jpeg , png , svg ), audio-video formats ( mp3 , mpeg ), text formats ( pdf , djvu ) and other files.
The functionality of browsers is constantly expanding and improving due to the competition between their developers and the high rate of development and implementation of information technology. Despite the fact that browsers of different manufacturers are based on different technological solutions, most modern browsers adhere to international standards and W3C recommendations in the field of data processing and display. Standardization allows you to achieve predictability in the visual representation of information to the end user, regardless of the technology used to display it in the browser. Since the beginning of the use of browsers on the World Wide Web in the early 1990s, from a simple text browser, the browser has evolved into a comprehensive application software for processing data and providing an interface between information resources and the individual. In recent years, many browser developers have focused their efforts on improving the convenience of the browser’s user interface for use in hardware devices that usetouch screens .
Browsers are distributed, as a rule, for free . The browser can be delivered to consumers in the form of a standalone (stand-alone) application or as part of a complete software package. For example, Internet Explorer and Microsoft Edge are shipped as part of the Microsoft Windows operating system ; Mozilla Firefox – separately or as part of Linux distributions (for example, Ubuntu ); Safari – as part of the operating system Mac OS X ; Google Chrome , Opera and other browsers – as stand-alone applications in a variety of options for different operating systems.
History of development
The first web browser was created in 1990 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee . It was called WorldWideWeb and was later renamed to Nexus  . But the first common browser with a graphical interface was NCSA Mosaic . The source code for this one of the first browsers was opened, and some other browsers ( Netscape Navigator andInternet Explorer ) took it as a basis. This browser had its drawbacks, but almost all of them were eliminated in the Netscape Navigator browser (some Netscape employees were from the NCSA and participated in the development of Mosaic). Netscape released Netscape Navigator for various operating systems ( UNIX ,Windows , Mac OS ) and achieved significant success, including commercial. This prompted Microsoft to release its Internet Explorer browser.
Unlike Netscape, Microsoft immediately released localized versions of IE. In 1995, Microsoft released the Windows 95 operating system , it did not have a built-in browser, but after a while, the browser ( Internet Explorer 3.0) was built into the system update (Windows 95 OSR2) . In addition, Microsoft added incompatible HTML extensions to its browser, and this can be considered the beginning of the war of browsers , which ended in the monopolization (more than 95%) of the market by Microsoft’s browser.
Due to the loss of the market, Netscape’s revenues fell, and it was acquired by AOL , and the source code for the Netscape browser was released under the freelicense of the MPL ( Mozilla Public License ). The name “Mozilla” was initially present in the browser from Netscape and meant a shortening of the words Mosaic + killer. However, this code was decided not to be used, and instead of it, for Netscape 6, a new engine (Gecko) was written from scratch, initially based on full standards support, on the basis of which later the Mozilla Suite browser, mail and irc-client and editor of web pages.
Subsequently, the Mozilla Foundation decided to deliver and develop the browser separately from the general package, and the Mozilla Firefox project was born . Firefox contains many features not found in IE or other browsers, and is gradually gaining popularity .
Monopolization of the browser IE had other consequences: Microsoft almost ceased to develop the browser, and it almost did not change from the 4th to the 6th version: it supported the standards worse than other browsers, and lagged behind in terms of usability, speed and speed display pages. This situation prompted Microsoft to re-engage in the browser, and the seventh version came out with some changes (tabs were added, standards support improved, speed of operation increased and more convenient interface). On March 19, 2009, Microsoft released the 8th version of Internet Explorer , and on March 14, 2011 the 9th version of Internet Explorer and actively promotes it on the Russian market in conjunction with companies such as Yandex , Mail.ru and Rambler .
In 1995, the Opera browser appeared . Opera originally distributed as shareware (shareware), this may be due to its low popularity in most countries, and high popularity in the CIS . However, since 2005 Opera also began to be distributed free of charge.
In Internet Explorer 8, Microsoft initially offered to enter an HTML comment that would tell browsers which versions of the engines to use (the heading
DOCTYPEshould have been canceled as a little used), which aroused the indignation of the supporters of the standards, as there was no indication of the use of standards. Later it was announced that IE8 will default to “standards mode” ( Engl. Standards mode ), instead of “compatibility mode” ( Engl. Quirks of mode ), and when it detects an appropriate comment to use the simulation mode of the previous version.
In 2008, Google released its browser – Chrome , based on the free project Chromium . Chrome browser contains some innovations (isolation of failures, “incognito” mode, etc.). Released versions for Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Linux, BSD and Mac OS X .
In early 2009, Microsoft announced that it is developing a new browser, which will be called Gazelle . The new browser will apply the principles of resource sharing, typical for multi-user operating systems , which, according to Microsoft, will increase its security .
In September 2009, it became known about the intention of the Russian government commission on federal communications and information technologies to develop a browser for state organizations, selecting a developer based on the results of an open competition. Paradoxically, Opera and Firefox are rejected in favor of Internet Explorer because they “transmit information about users to the Google search engine”, although this is easily disabled in the settings of both programs